In a large mixing bowl, add flour, salt, yeast, cheese and rosemary. Pour in water, use a wooden spatula to combine. Cover tightly with plastic wrap and let sit on your counter for 12-18 hours (I've even done up to 24 hours).
When ready to bake your bread, preheat oven to 450 F degrees. Add cast iron dutch oven (with the lid on) to the oven, so it preheats along with the oven itself.
Flour your hands, counter/cutting board, and sprinkle some flour over the top of the dough itself. Remove dough from bowl and shape it into a rough ball shape. Drop ball of dough into the preheated pot, cover with lid and return to the oven.
Bake, with the lid on, for 30 minutes, then remove lid and bake for another 15-20 minutes until golden brown and crusty.
Bread should remove easily from the pot, so take bread out and let cool completely before slicing.